Philosophical Perspectives of Methodology

Research philosophy

Introduction

Research philosophy is an important part of the methods that we use in investigations. It is categorised as ontology, epistemology, and axiology. These philosophical viewpoints aid researchers in determining which approach is best for their research. It also addresses why the researcher chooses a particular approach. Before moving onto the perspectives of research philosophy, let’s define the term research philosophy.

It deals with the source, nature and development of data. In simple words, it is a belief about the ways that we can use to collect and analyse data on a phenomenon. To complete your thesis, you should engage with data collection. You will collect secondary and primary data. You will analyse that data to answer the questions of the research. The answers which you will give create new data for others. The practical implications of your research influence the choice of specific research philosophy.

Research philosophy consists of four main types of researches. These types cover a wide range of investigations. The types are as follows;

1. Pragmatism

According to this, the research question is the most important determinant of research philosophy. The fact is we should not take one picture of the entire investigation. We can take more than one picture using different ways to understand the research reality. This understanding will give us a strategic view of the case study. Pragmatism is the main factor in research philosophies. It also affects the ontology and epistemology types of philosophies.

The description of ontology and epistemology types is as follows.

1. Ontology

The base of the ontology is reality. The cheap dissertation writing services compay search said the classification of ontology is based on objectivism and subjectivism. Now, what are objectivism and subjectivism? Objectivism is the belief that social objects exist outside of social actors in reality. Second, subjectivism is concerned with social phenomena that arise from perceptions. And also from the effects of those social actors who are involved in their existence.

For example, film award shows are high cultural activities. The official of the government and celebrities attend this ceremony. The researcher wants to map the temperament of the crowd. In this case, the researcher will adopt the subjectivism approach to determine the temperament of the crowd.

2. Epistemology

Epistemology is the study of what composes acceptable knowledge in a given field of study. There are two aspects of this research philosophy. One is a resources researcher, and the other is a feeling researcher. The ‘resource researcher’ looks at data through the eyes of a natural scientist. On the other hand, the’ feeling researcher’ is concerned with the workers’ feelings and attitudes toward their supervisors. So, the resource researchers involve positivist philosophy.

In contrast, the feeling researchers focus on interpretivism philosophy. In the field of study philosophy. Epistemology is divided into three categories: Positivism, Realism, and Interpretivism.

3. Axiology

Axiology is a type of philosophy dealing with aesthetics, ethics, and judgments. This type also involves the process of social inquiry. Investigators use axiological skills to decide about the subject and procedure.

For example, a researcher conducts a study on some bank customers. He carries out this study to determine their experience with using a credit card. He studies it with respect to convenience, security and privacy. The findings of the study revealed that there was a lack of customer awareness. Most of the customers are not interested in the product. It was also due to a lack of communication methods with customers. The bank officials did not allow the researcher to publish his findings. But for the sake of the customer’s welfare, the researcher must examine the ethics of the issue.

2. Positivism

The second type of research philosophy is positivism. Its main goal is to adopt, enhance and present the philosophical scene of the natural scientist. Data collection and hypothesis creation are the basis of this research strategy. The researchers will test and confirm these hypotheses. They will also use the data obtained for further studies. To help the hypotheses, positivist researchers use highly organised methodologies.

For example, the resources researchers can not manipulate during data collection. It is because they are independent of the subject of research. In positivism, the researcher investigates the assumptions and confirms the results to form a theory.

3. Realism

Realism is another branch of philosophical methods. It relates to scientific enquiry. The basic element of realism is that it aims to reveal the truth of reality. It also tells us that, in the human mind, objects exist independently. It has two types direct realism and critical realism.

Direct realism explains the experiences of our senses. Critical realism expresses that those we experience by our senses is not reality. They are images of the real world.

The difference between them is that the first type relates to the capacity of research. On the other hand, the second type relates to the importance of multi-level study in the context of the individual.

Critical realism claims that there are two to experience this world. The first is sensation, and the second stage is the mental process. The mental process starts working after the sensations.


4. Interpretivism

According to the dissertation writing services firm, interpretivism focuses on the assessment of the differences between humans as social actors. This philosophy provides the interpretation of social roles concerning one’s own set of meanings. Furthermore, we perceive other people’s social roles based on our own set of meanings. The base of this approach is on social life.

For example, in an organisation, all the workers have different approaches. They have their way of interpreting things. The interpretations of manager and HR are different. This is because both belong to different social roles.

Conclusion

So, we can say that philosophical approaches play an important role in researches. The base of qualitative research is interpretivism. At the same time, the base of quantitative investigation is positivism. There are more philosophical approaches, but we could only list them mentioned above due to some limits. The research strategies vary from topic to topic. It is up to you to choose the one which suits your topic.

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