Research Questions Formulation by Using PICO and PEO

Frameworks help researchers in sorting most of the issues they may face. These issues can arise while the researcher manages systematic literature review. In research, the framework aims to spread knowledge. This is related to the method of forming research questions. They can reduce the chances of committing major structural mistakes within research. The two most common frameworks for formulating research questions include PICO and PEO.

Apart from these two frameworks, many other types are also common. A few of them are as follows as shared by experts of dissertation writing services;
  • CoCoPop (condition, context, and population)
  • PIO (population, intervention, and outcomes)
  • PICOT (population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and time)
  • PICOS (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, and study type)
  • PIRD (population, index test, as well as reference test and diagnosis)
  • SPIDER (sample, phenomenon, design, evaluation, and research type)

NHS strongly suggests health care professionals to use these frameworks. They will help them in developing answerable questions for their systematic review. Some common benefits of using these frameworks are as follows;
  • They help a researcher in identifying the key concept for newly developed questions.
  • They help researchers in setting the inclusion, and exclusion criteria for a systematic literature review.
  • They help health care professionals in conducting their research through an organised way.
  • They help by forming more focused research questions. These help in raising the standards of research.

PICO:
In health sciences, checking the effectiveness of a therapy PICO framework is common. Capital alphabets in PICO suggest the working principle of this framework.

Table 1: Essentials of PICO framework

PICO FRAMEWORK
P Patient

How can you describe the patients, or population under study?
I Intervention

What type of therapy are you going to investigate after patients’ diagnosis?
C Comparison

What therapy (new or old) will be best for the patient’s intervention?
0 Outcomes

What will be the possible results of review, or research?


As by definition;

PICO framework helps solve queries about medical condition of a patient/ population. Yet based on intervention, PICO can suggest the possible outcomes.

Purpose of PICO
It isn’t easy to analyse the evidence of a happening in health sciences, especially without forming well-focused questions. Hence, evidence-based practice (EBP) suggest that researchers use PICO to make well-focused questions.

Essentials
While using PICO, the following points will help you in achieving your aims.
  1. The patients are randomly selected members of a population. They are at risk of a certain health problem.
  2. Regarding patients, the following aspects are important to notice;
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Demographic variables
  • Ethnicity
  • Socioeconomic status
  1. In this framework, comparison is not a necessary step for intervention.
  2. Outcome of the PICO framework must have solid evidence. Significant difference among variables enhances credibility of PICO outcomes.
  3. PICO outcomes are probably the results of using human models. Any lab alternative is not acceptable.

PEO:
PEO is another important research question for generating the framework. In researches containing qualitative design, PEO is a useful framework.

Table 2: Essentials of PEO framework
PEO FRAMEWORK
P

Patients/Population

How can you describe the patients, or population under study?
E

Exposure

What are pre-existing difficulties of the patients?

In short, the disorder of the patient under study.
0 Outcomes

What will be possible results of the review, or research?











By definition,

Like PICO, PEO is also a framework that helps medical researchers in developing more focused type of research questions. They do this by using the following three categories. These three categories that help researchers in conducting research are mentioned in the section above.Purpose of PEO:
While using PEO, the following points as shared by a dissertation writing service will help you in achieving your aims;
  1. The researcher uses a random population. The patients suffering from a disease under study, can also be used in this framework.
  2. A researcher can include the following questions in his/her research;
  • Ethnicity
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Demographic variables
  • Family history
  • Epidemiology of a particular disease

  1. In PEO, there is no need to compare it with previous conditions, and controls.
  2. PEO outcomes are probably the results of using human models. Any lab alternative is not acceptable.
The above description reflects that PICO and PEO have many things in common. But every framework has its own pros and cons. Hence, PICO and PEO also have a few differences. These are as follows;

Table 3: Differences between PICO and PEO

Differences between PICO and PEO
PICO PEO

  • In most cases, PICO is a research question formulation tool for quantitative analysis.
  • PICO includes four parameters while forming the research questions.
  • The four important steps of PICO are; Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcomes
  • In a systematic review, comparison helps in enhancing the quality of research.
  • This four factorial process requires a little more times than PEO.
  • PICO is framework that helps in making research questions. These questions aim to check the possible clinical treatments.

  • In most cases, PEO is a research question formulation tool for quantitative analysis.
  • PEO includes three parameters while forming the research questions.
  • The four important steps of PEO are; Population, Intervention and Outcomes
  • PEO includes three parameters while forming the research questions.
  • The four important steps of PEO are; Population, Intervention and Outcome
  • The absence of a comparison factor provides less details than PICO.
  • If you have a limited time scale, then PEO will help you. It does so by forming research questions through three steps only.
  • PEO is a framework that helps formulate questions to deals with the health care experiences. These questions also deal with environmental related aspects.

 

 

 

 

                            

 

 


Table 4: Similarities between PICO and PEO

Similarities between PICO and PEO
PICO PEO

  • Inbroader terms, the purpose of PICO framework overlaps with the purpose of PEO.
  • PICO aims to increase the effectiveness of research questions.
  • The considering factors of PICO are; Age, Gender and Socioeconomic status
  • Step-wise guide of PICO includes the following aspects; Population, Intervention, Control and Outcomes

  • In broader terms, the purpose of PEO framework overlaps with the purpose of PICO.
  • PEO also help researchers in formulating more focused research questions.
  • The considering factors of PEO are; Age, Gender and Socioeconomic status
  • Expect step number 3, PEO’s step-wise guide includes steps following Population, Intervention and Outcomes


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